Juju User Personas

Provisional: Your input is welcome! Do any of these descriptions match you? If none of them fit, please comment as well.



Alex is frustrated with the DevOps world these days. Even building a simple node.js app tests her patience.

The situation at work is a mess. Behind the glossy website is a graveyard of shell scripts, Chef recipes, and the occasional Ansible playbook. They’ve also experimented with Helm and Terraform. Alex works at a mid-sized software agency with a mix of public and private sector clients. They manage web sites, mobile app backends, web APIs and some internal infrastructure such as CI/CD and file several. The team has adopted several tools over the years and has never really had the spare time to clean things up.

Alex is looking to our documentation to evaluate whether Juju could help her workplace.

Outside of work, Alex enjoys podcasts on the way home from work. She’s been anticipating the arrival of Animal Crossing: New Horizons for a long time, after being disappointed with a few of the spin offs. She would love a dog, but the landlord would never go for it.

Photo: Christina/Unsplash


Matthias has the job title DevOps Specialist, but he often finds himself operating in several areas from user support to assisting with web development.

He works for a large industrial firm based in Belgium, with offices throughout the Benelux countries and a manufacturing arm based in Poland. His team in Antwerp supports the R&D function at the company, so his team’s role is to facilitate the work of product engineers, data science and market analysts. Recently, he was asked to investigate Kubernetes for the company.

He is looking at Juju documentation because he’s read somewhere that it’s the easiest way to deploy Kubernetes on VMware.

Matthias is a keen football fan. Some might say fanatic. He’s confident that Bitcoin will make a return, but wishes he had gone short earlier.

Photo: Tim can der Kuip/Unsplash


Louis is part of a team managing OpenStack deployments at FYI, a global systems integrator with over 400k employees. He uses Juju to manage OpenStack and has been quietly advocating the use of charms for managing applications throughout the rest of the stack.

His interest in Juju’s documentation is twofold. Primarily, he wants to be able to quickly understand how to manage controllers, upgrades and expansions. Secondarily though, he wants to be able to point other people to the docs who might be writing their first charm.

Like many new fathers, he’s sleep deprived but absolutely loves spending time with his little boy Marcel. Louis is active in the local craft brewing community, regularly creating brews for his friends’ events. Unlike many Europeans, he prefers American to noble hop varieties.

Photo: Sigmund/ Unsplash


Li is a senior developer at Alliantra, a VC-backed startup in NY, NY. Alliantra’s flagship offering is a database that’s API-compatible with Postgres that incorporates time series and machine learning extensions. The company is investing heavily to engage with prospective customers within the financial sector. Li has been tasked to simplify the process of setting up and managing evaluation/POC deployments for the pre-sales team.

Li would like to learn a) whether charms can help, and b) how to write a charm quickly if it can.

Photo: Mason Wilkes/Unsplash


Maria works for US-based software company but is originally from South America. She’s a contractor and considers himself an entrepreneur. Maria loves Juju and enjoys writing charms. She’s really excited about the prospect of a creating a consulting company for companies that wish to distribute their software via Juju.

Maria’s interest in Juju’s documentation is understanding the details of how Juju operates and to create the advanced charming docs.

Maria has had a long-standing interest in the local geocaching community. He’s seen other location-based services, like FourSquare and Pokemon Go, come and go, but has been impressed by the open source, grassroots nature of geocaching.

Photo: Jake Melara/Unsplash

Figurative Personas


The Outsider is exploring Juju as an option for them. The Outsider could be a systems administrator who is frustrated with their current tooling or a manager who is responsible for a team of systems administrators.

Familiarity with Juju’s help infrastructure

Resource Likelihood of knowing about it
juju help commands highly unlikely
Discourse unlikely
juju.is/docs likely
Juju Experts highly unlikely

Information Needs

  • Why Juju? How is Juju different than other devops tools?
  • Can Juju increase my (team’s) productivity?


Deployers spend less time writing charms than other personas. If they’re looking at the documentation, then they have probably a problem. They want practical advice that solves that problem.


  • Knows about juju help commands: highly likely
  • Knows about Discourse: highly likely
  • Knows about juju.is/docs: highly likely
  • Knows about Juju Experts: unlikely

Information Needs

Accidental User

The Accidental User is someone using an installation guide, such as that for Kubernetes or OpenStack and then asks “What’s Juju?”.

The Accidental User isn’t interested in Juju. Juju is a side-effect of their ultimate goal.

Information needs

  • How do get back to what I wanted to do in the first place?
  • How do I ask for help?


A software vendor who knows more about their own technology than charms/Juju. The Creator is interested in enabling others to deploy and manage their service efficiently.

The Creator’s goal is to get an effective charm written effectively.


Someone who really likes writing charms. Typically an open source software developer who is writing charms for upstream applications. Knows more about charms/Juju than the application.

Can probably build an adequate charm for juju deploy steps, but doesn’t have the domain knowledge to know exactly which actions to write, for example.

Invested User

Someone at this level is reaping the rewards of their investment in Juju/charms. The Invested User might be a systems integrator who uses Juju to deploy and manage services, such as the Juju Experts.

The Invested User is competent at charm writing and managing Juju models in production.

The Invested User’s goal is to learn Juju’s internals to make charms (& thus deployments) robust.


These personas would be more properly called “provisional personas” or “proto personas”. They’re being developed to help refine Juju’s documentation.

Background Research


When the project calls for it – for instance when user experience is a major factor in project outcomes – the team crafts detailed, synthetic biographies of fictitious users of the future product: these are called “personas”. (In Alan Cooper’s concise terms: “make up pretend users and design for them”.)

from https://www.agilealliance.org/glossary/personas




Some more topics relevant for Deployers speaking from our experiences:

  • Network requirements/recommendations and spaces
  • Cloud requirements/limitations/integration
  • “Enterprise” goodies such as HA, secrets, user management, proxies, lifecycle management, backup/restore/upgrading.

These are good suggestions! Thanks, I’ll add them in :slight_smile:

I guess I’d be a combination of Creator, Amplifier, and Invested User. :smiley: :man_shrugging:


You’re an interesting case actually. I think that there could be another category after “Invested User” for tool makers. People such as @matuskosut building Jujuna, plugin developers, contributors to the documentation/tutorials, and so forth.

Eventually, I would like to see Juju core becoming more accessible to external contributions. It’s a large and imposing software project, but it’s not impossible to learn and is quite rewarding.


Second that, and emphasize the explicit knowledge on the specific cloud substrate (aws, gce, vsphere, lxd, etc) and their limitations/capabilities in relation to juju.

Since you were mentioning differentiation of Juju and Charms as rather separate products, maybe invested users from charm perspective are fitting the description. Then considering Juju perspective you could add extensions of Juju environment/functionality/use cases (you mentioned e.g. jujuna, plugins, documentation,…) there, or make this difference a line between invested user and another persona.